Recent eruptions around the world have highlighted the fascinating and terrifying power of volcanoes.
From stunning footage of Iceland’s Bardarbunga volcano to a Hawaiian town bracing itself for the arrival of a menacing lava flow, we’ve seen dramatic evidence of the powerful forces at work inside the Earth.
So this week on the Guardian Teacher Network we have a range of ideas and resources to get pupils fired up when learning about volcanoes.
At key stage 2, the English national curriculum states that pupils should be able to describe and understand key aspects of volcanoes. A good starting place is this lesson plan by the Hamilton Trust. It encourages pupils to investigate where volcanoes are found and the vocabulary needed to describe what happens when a volcano erupts.
Students could use their new knowledge to create a giant wall display showing a cross-section of a volcano, similar to this diagram by 3D Geography. Label it with key terms such as magma chamber, main vent and crater, and encourage pupils to compile a glossary using this template.
You could then use this volcano-themed dictionary activity by Seeme Resources to reinforce students’ understanding of the vocabulary. Use it as a homework task and set an additional challenge to find some amazing facts. For example, how many known active volcanoes are there on Earth and which one is the biggest? What is the difference between a volcano that is dormant and one that is extinct? Can pupils find an example of an underwater volcano?
Primary students can research some of the world’s most famous volcanoes with this map-based activity. Using latitude and longitude co-ordinates, pupils plot 18 well-known volcanoes including Mount Fuji and Vesuvius. Can they identify which one is closest to the UK? We also have a word search and anagram puzzle about famous volcanoes, while these images fromTeaching Ideas would make a nice display.
One of the most exciting things to do when studying volcanoes is to make a model. Students can do this either in class or at home depending on the materials you have available. This resource gives some good examples. Pupils might also like to make a model showing the four layers of the Earth.
The best type of model volcano is one that “erupts”. To do this, build a play-dough or papier-mache volcano around a plastic drinks bottle. Place it on a waterproof tray. Add a tablespoon of baking soda, a tablespoon of soap powder, a few drops of red or orange food colouring and 180ml of water to the bottle and mix. Quickly add 45ml of vinegar then stand back and watch the eruption. Alternatively, use jam jars and wet sand as explained in this Guardian resource.
As an extension activity, students could investigate some of the measures that are taken to protect towns that are near volcanoes, such as constructing gullies to redirect lava flows. Questions to consider with secondary students might include: why would anyone want to live near a volcano? Can volcanoes be useful to us? Hint: think of the effect of mineral-rich lava deposits on surrounding land, and the role of volcanoes in the carbon cycle.
At key stage 3, the curriculum states that pupils should be able to understand the key processes in physical geography relating to plate tectonics. This video by Twig World provides a nice introduction.
Students can also explore plate boundaries in this activity by 3D Geography. They draw labelled diagrams of three different types of plate boundary – convergent, divergent and transform – and write short explanations of what the diagrams show. Pupils could work on these activities in groups, sharing their research with the rest of the class. We also have lessons about: the causes and effects of volcanic eruptions; the distribution of volcanoes; tectonic hazards; and the movement of tectonic plates.
Another good idea is to use volcanoes as a way of teaching topical science. This news article and activities by The Day is about a giant volcano at the centre of Yellowstone National Park. This one is about an Indonesian volcano that erupted after 400 years of dormancy and this one considers who should be in charge of saving archaeological treasures such as Pompeii. We also have a case study resource by the Geographical Association about the eruption of Mount Ontake on Honshu Island in Japan in September 2014. Asking students to imagine what it would be like to witness a volcano erupt could be a good cross-curricular, creative writing exercise.
Finally, London’s Science Museum is showing a film about the power of volcanoes, earthquakes and severe storms called ‘Forces of Nature’ on Tuesday 10 February at 11am. It uses animation to explore the formation of the Earth’s crust and documentary footage to show how natural disasters are triggered. The film supports learning from key stage 2 to 4. Booking is required and tickets cost £5 per person. You’ll find more teaching materials from the Science Museum here.
For more ideas, see this how to teach article about earthquakes. You’ll find all the latest world news about volcanoes, including amazing images and videos, here.
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Anyone who has witnessed a volcano erupting needs no further evidence to know that Earth is a dynamic planet. Volcanoes are one of the major mechanisms for creating new crust. They are powerful, breathtaking, and dangerous, and offer scientists an unparalleled glimpse at Earth's interior. Although the processes that form magma are not well understood, volcanoes — and the igneous rocks they produce — can be studied and explained in the context of plate tectonics. In this lesson, students investigate the processes that build volcanoes, the factors that influence different eruption types, and the threats volcanoes pose to their surrounding environments. After exploring these characteristics, students use what they have learned to identify physical features and eruption types in some real-life documented volcanic episodes.
- Understand what volcanoes are, how they form, and the rocks they create
- Create a notebook of volcano characteristics
- Use acquired knowledge to identify several types of modern volcanic eruptions around the world
Grade Levels: 6-8 , 9-12
Three to four 45-minute class periods, or two 90-minute class periods
Use these resources to create a simple assessment or video-based assignment with the Lesson Builder tool on PBS LearningMedia.
Before the Lesson
If possible, arrange Internet access for all students to work in pairs.
Students will learn about volcanoes and then apply their knowledge by 1) exploring the physical characteristics of various types of volcanoes and 2) identifying the types of volcanoes featured in several case studies. In order to complete the lesson's objectives, students should have a basic understanding of plate tectonics, including the different types of plate boundaries.
Part I: Understanding Volcanoes
1. Before beginning the media-based activities, divide the class into small groups (3-5 students each) and distribute a copy of the World Map Without Volcanoes PDF Image to each group. (If copies cannot be made, use a map in a textbook or one in the classroom and distribute removable dot stickers.) Mention that Hawai'i is one place that is well known for its volcanoes. Now ask the groups to list as many other states and countries as they can that have volcanoes. You may want to suggest that they think about major eruptions that have appeared in the news recently, or famous ones that have happened in history (e.g., Vesuvius and Krakatau). Next, have them mark the locations of the volcanoes on their maps. Before moving on, ask the students the following:
- Do you see any patterns?
- Can you think of any possible explanations for the patterns you see?
2. Now hand out copies of the World Map With Volcanoes PDF Image marked and have the groups look at both maps. Ask about the distribution of volcanoes, and have students hypothesize why they are where they are and why certain areas are more active than others. If there is time, have the groups share their lists and other findings with the class.
3. Ask students to explore the Volcanism HTML Interactive and record in their notebooks answers to the questions below. Students will use the recorded information in the case study activity that concludes the lesson plan. As an optional activity, have the students check out the Mountain Maker, Earth Shaker Flash Interactive to review the basics of plate tectonics.
- How do volcanoes form?
- What are the four primary types of volcanoes? Name and describe each type in detail. Encourage students to sketch the shape of each type and note its plate tectonic setting (i.e., over hot spots, spreading centers, or subduction zones).
- Where do volcanoes form?
- Rocks are classified by what they are made of and how they form. Igneous rocks always begin as magma. What are the two main types of igneous rocks, and what is the main difference between them? How does each type form into solid rock?
4. Next, ask students to check out the Volcanic Eruptions and Hazards HTML Interactive and record in their notebooks answers to the following questions:
- Will an effusive eruption have more gas and be more dense (viscous) than an explosive flow, or will it be less gaseous and less viscous? How does each type of eruption cause damage?
- Which type of eruption appears to be the more hazardous to humans? Explain your answer.
- Of the numerous hazards caused by volcanic eruptions, list and describe at least three that cause damage on a local level, and at least one that has global implications.
5. Now ask the students to look at the dynamic landforms and features in the Anatomy of a Volcano Flash Interactive and Volcanic Features HTML Interactive . Have them write down the following vocabulary list of features and describe each one: lava, tephra, lava lake, vent, fissure, dike, magma, caldera, crater, geyser, spring, `a`a flow, pahoehoe flow, and lava tubes. As an additional, optional activity, ask students to explore the Virtual Lava Tube Flash Interactive and address the following questions using the resource:
- How do lava tubes form, and where are they most likely to be found?
- What is the difference between how two common cave features -- stalactites and stalagmites -- form in limestone caves and how they form in lava tubes?
- Besides stalactites and stalagmites, choose three lava tube features that interest you, and explain how they form.
Part II: What Can We Learn from Magma and Lava?
6. Volcanoes vary greatly in terms of the composition and temperature of the magma they produce, and these characteristics affect how they will erupt. Scientists study lava, fresh from Earth's mantle, to learn more about the inner workings of volcanoes. The Lava Sampling on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi QuickTime Video demonstrates the simple, yet risky, technique one researcher uses to access lava just as it reaches Earth's surface. Show this video to the class, or have them watch it on their own computers, and ask them to answer the following questions in their notebooks:
- Why does scientist Michael Garcia refer to the basalt he is walking on as "the youngest real estate on Earth"?
- What does viscous mean?
- For what scientific reason does Dr. Garcia quickly quench the hot lava with water?
- What has careful study of the composition of the lavas from Kilauea and Mauna Loa revealed about their origins and relationship?
You can continue this line of volcanic study by showing the Dating Lava Flows on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaiʻi QuickTime Video , which provides further insight into the Hawaiian volcanoes and describes the effective method one scientist has found of dating prehistoric lava flows.
Part III: Case Studies — Applying Your Knowledge
7. Mount Pinatubo
Ask the students to view the Mount Pinatubo: Predicting a Volcanic Eruption QuickTime Video and the Mount Pinatubo: The Aftermath of a Volcanic Eruption QuickTime Video . Using the notes they have taken during the lesson, have them answer the following questions in their notebooks. Engage them in a class discussion before proceeding to the next case study.
- Was the Mount Pinatubo eruption an effusive or explosive eruption?
- Based on your observations, what type of volcano is Mount Pinatubo? On what evidence do you base your answer?
- Over what type of plate boundary is this volcano located? Is this tectonic setting consistent with your answer to the first question?
- Because vulcanologists were able to accurately predict the timing of this eruption, the lives of hundreds of people who evacuated the nearby area were probably saved. What evidence did the scientists observe that prompted them to call for an evacuation?
Ask the students to think about what might make predicting a volcanic eruption difficult and what problems might result from inaccurate (false-positive or false-negative) predictions. Have them record their ideas in their notebooks and then explore the Forecasting Volcanic Eruptions HTML Interactive . When they're finished, have them consider their previous notebook entries and ask them to record their answers to the following questions. Engage them in a class discussion before proceeding to the next case study.
- What problems did the inaccurate eruption forecast of the Tungurahua volcano cause for the people of Ecuador and what difficulties might this cause for community officials in the future?
- What three variables do scientists monitor when attempting to forecast volcanic eruptions?
- What are some of the hurdles that vulcanologists face when trying to make accurate eruption forecasts?
Next, have students view the Plate Tectonics: The Hawaiian Archipelago QuickTime Video and respond to the following questions. Again, engage them in a class discussion before proceeding to the next case study.
- Based on your observations of this video and previous videos you have seen, what type of volcanoes are Kilauea and the other Hawaiian volcanoes? On what evidence do you base your answer?
- Does Hawai'i experience effusive or explosive eruptions?
- Explain Hawai'i's setting in terms of plate boundaries. What makes it so unusual?
10. Mount St. Helens
Finally, have students view the Mount St. Helens: Before and After Flash Interactive and respond to the following questions. Discuss their responses.
- Describe what is happening throughout the eruption. What kind of material is being ejected by the volcano? Do you see lava? What happens to all of the ash?
- Based on your observations, what type of volcano produced this eruption? On what evidence do you base your answer?
- Based on the before and after images, identify ways in which both the volcano and surrounding area were changed by the 1980 eruption.
- Based on the satellite images, how has the affected area changed in the time since the eruption?
- What are some similarities and differences in the destruction caused by effusive and explosive eruptions? What, if anything, was surprising to you about the blowdown, lahar, and pyroclastic flow images?
- What factors play a part in the recovery of vegetation (and wildlife) in areas affected by volcanic eruptions?
Check for Understanding
Have students discuss the following:
- What are the differences between the four types of volcanoes? Is there one distinguishing characteristic, or more than one?
- Which types of volcanoes form on divergent plate boundaries? On convergent plate boundaries? What is a hot spot?
- Is it possible for scientists to predict when a volcano will erupt so they can call for the evacuation of the area around it? If so, what kind of evidence do the scientists need to make such a prediction?
- Describe the hazards that volcanoes present for humans who live near them.
The Digital Library for Earth System Education (www.dlese.org) offers access to additional resources on this topic.