Essay On Rights And Responsibilities Of Citizens Wikipedia

Duty of any person of the country in his/her any age group is a must to do responsibility of that person towards his/her country. There is no any particular time which will call anyone to perform the duty towards country however it is the birth rights of every Indian citizen to understand and perform all the duties towards their country as daily routine or whenever required according to the type of duty. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, has said to discuss this topic in the schools, colleges and other places at the Republic Day celebration of India 2016. We have provided here variety of essay on my Duty towards my Country in order to help students. All the my Duty towards my Country essay are written using simple English language especially for the students. They can select anyone according to the need and requirement:

Essay on Duty towards my Country

Duty towards my Country Essay 1 (100 words)

We can say that duty is a moral and legal responsibility of a person which he/she must have to perform towards country. It is a task or action needed to be performed as a job by each and every citizen of the country. Performing duties towards the nation is the respect of a citizen towards his/her nation. Everyone must follow all the rules and regulation as well as be courteous and loyal for responsibilities towards the nation. There are various duties of a person towards nation such as economical growth, development, cleanliness, good governance, quality education, removing poverty, removing all the social issues, bring gender equality, have respect to everyone, go for voting, remove child labour to give healthy youths to the nation and many more.

Duty towards my Country Essay 2 (150 words)

Duty towards country is having moral commitments and performing all the individual or group responsibilities. It is must be understood by each and every citizen of the country. India is a country which believes ‘unity in diversity’ where people of more than one religions, casts, creed and languages live together. It is a country famous all across the world for its culture, tradition and historical heritages however still counted as developing country because of the irresponsibility of its citizens.

There is a big gap between rich and poor people. Rich people do not understand and perform their responsibilities towards poor people. They forget their responsibility of economical growth in the country which is possible by eliminating poverty from the country. Everyone should help backward people to grow up, remove social issues, corruption, bad politics, etc running in the country. A very good example of loyal and selfless duty towards country is the duty performed by the Indian soldiers at the borders.

They stand up there 24 hrs to protect us and our country from the rivals. They perform their duty regularly even they face various big problems on the orders. They are away from their loved ones and do not get comfort and luxury life. However, despite of getting all the basic facilities in our life, we are unable to perform even our small responsibilities like cleanliness, following rules, etc.

Duty towards my Country Essay 3 (200 words)

Individual Duties of People towards Country

Being a citizen or a member of the society, community, or country needs some duties to be performed individually. Everyone has to perform duties of citizenship in the country in order provide bright future. A country is backward, poor, or developing, everything depends on its citizens especially if a country is democratic country. Everyone should exist in the state of good citizen and be loyal towards country. People should follow all the rules, regulations and laws made by the government for their safety and betterment of life.

They should believe in equality and live with proper equation in the society. Being a common citizen, no one shows sympathy with the crime and must raise voice against that. People in India have power to elect their chief minister, prime minister, and other political leader through their votes, so they never waste their votes by selecting bad leaders who can corrupt their country. However, they should understand and know properly about his/her leaders and then give right vote. Their duty is to make their country clean and beautiful. They should not destroy and dirt the heritages and other tourist places. People must take interest in the daily news other than their daily routine activities in order to know what bad or good are going on in their country.


Duty towards my Country Essay 4 (250 words)

India is a religious, cultural and traditional country and famous for the unity in diversity. However, it needs more efforts from the end of its citizens to keep it clean, free of corruption, free of social issues, crimes against women, poverty, pollution, global warming, etc for more development. People need to understand their duties towards country instead of shouting and blaming to the government. Each and every person is individually responsible for the growth and development in the country. People should never forget a famous quote said by Lao Tzu that, “The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step”. Everyone should be aware of their fundamental duties and follow without ignorance. As being a good and responsible citizen of the country, everyone must perform duties very loyally as:

  • People should obey all the rule and laws made by the government. They should respect the authority and do not break rules as well as motivate others to do the same.
  • They should not bear any crime against them and must raise voice against corruption. They must perform civic and social duties without negatively affecting the society.
  • They should provide solutions to needy people, vote intelligently and pay their all taxes a proper time.
  • They should take the help of acts like RTI, RTE, etc for the goodness of society.
  • Everyone must involve in the cleanliness campaign to keep surroundings and locality clean. They should teach kids to use dustbin to throw useless things and take care of the public properties.
  • People, who are able, must leave their gas subsidy for poor people.
  • Everyone should be honest and loyal to the country and fellow citizens. They have feeling of respect to each other and must respect social and economic policies for the welfare of the country.
  • People must involve their kids in the education and take care of their health and childhood. They should not force their kids for child labour and other crimes.
  • People should try their best to make a best country of the world.

Duty towards my Country Essay 5 (300 words)

Introduction

Duty of a person is the responsibility which he/she needs to perform individually. A citizen living in the society, community or country has various duties and responsibilities towards the society, community and country to be performed in right manner. People should have faith in goodness and never ignore important duties towards their country.

My Duties towards my Country as being a Citizen

Years have been passed since our country got independence from the British rule by the sacrifices of many great freedom fighters. They were real followers of their duties towards country who really made possible the dream of freedom in the country by paying very costly cost of lives of millions of people. After independence of India, rich people and politicians got involved in their own development only and not the country. It is true that we have been independent from the British rule however not from the greediness, crimes, corruption, irresponsibility, social issues, child labour, poverty, cruelty, terrorism, female infanticide, gender inequality, dowry death, gang rape, and other illegal activities.

It is not enough making only rules, regulations, laws, acts, campaigns and programmes by the government, they are needed to be followed strictly by each and every Indian citizen to be really free from all the illegal activities. Indian citizens need to perform their loyal duties towards country for the betterment of everyone by eliminating poverty, gender inequality, child labour, crimes against women and other social issues. Indian citizens have right to select their own political leader which can lead their country in right direction towards development. So, they do not have right to blame bad people in their life. They must keep their eyes opened while voting their political leaders and chose the one who is really free of corrupt mind and has capability to lead a country.

Conclusion

It is must for the people of India to perform their duties individually towards country to really become independent in true sense. It is very necessary for the development of the country which can be possible only from the end of its disciplined, punctual, dutiful and honest citizens.


 

Duty towards my Country Essay 6 (400 words)

Introduction

A person has various duties in his/her life towards himself, family, parents, kids, wife, husband, neighbors, society, community and most importantly towards the country. Duties of a person towards country are very important to maintain its dignity, bright future, and lead it towards betterment.

Who am I

I am an Indian citizen as I took birth here. As being a responsible citizen of the country, I have many duties towards my country which I must fulfill all that. I have to perform my duties in various aspects and all that related to the development of my country.

What is Duty

Duty is a task or action needed to be performed by each and every individual of the country on regular basis for the betterment and more development. Performing duty loyally is the responsibility of Indian citizens and is the demand of development in country.

What are my Duties towards my Country

Citizen of a country is the person who lives almost his/her full life and leaves his/her ancestors too, so everyone has some duties towards country. Take an example of home in which various members live together however everyone has to follow all the rules and regulations made by a most senior person or head of the family for the betterment and peaceful life in the home. Just like that, our country is like a home in which people of various religions live together however they need to follow some rules and regulations made by the government for more development in the country. Loyal duties of citizens aim to remove all the social issues, bring real independence in the country and come under the category of developed countries.

People working in the government or private offices, must go on time and perform their duties loyally without wasting time as there is a true saying that “if we destroy time, time will destroy us”. Time never waits anyone, it runs continuously and we should learn from the time. We should not stay until we get the goal in our life. The most important goal of our life is to make our country a great country in true sense.

We should not be selfish people and understand our duties towards country. It’s we, not others who are both, the victim and the benefiter. Our each and every activity affects us in positive and negative manner (if we do positive we become benefiter and if we do negative we become victim). So, why we do not take pledge today to take our each and every step positively in right direction in order to get protected from being a victim in our own country. It is us who have right to rule the country by selecting a good leader. So, why we blame others or politicians, we should blame only us and not others as it’s we who are not performing duties according to the demand. We have been involved in our own daily routine only and have not any mean to other’s life, extracurricular activities, political affairs of the country, etc. It is our mistake that our country is still in the category of developing country and not in the developed country.

Conclusion

It is a big problem man; we should not take it easy. We should not be greedy and selfish; we should live and let others live a healthy and peaceful life. The bright future of our country is in our own hand. Still there is a time and chance for us, we can do better. Start living with open eyes and perform true duties towards the country. We should maintain the cleanliness of our heart, body, mind and surrounding areas for the good start.


 

Duty towards my Country Essay 7 (600 words)

Duties of Citizens towards Country as: Following are the responsibilities of Indian citizens at their different positions:

  • Parents: Parents are highly responsible for their country as they are the main source of giving good or bad leaders to the country. They are considered as the first basic school for their kids so they should be attentive all time as they are responsible to nourish the future of the country. Because of some greedy parents (whether poor or rich), our country is still having poverty, gender inequality, child labour, bad social or political leaders, female infanticide, and thus poor future of the country. All the parents should understand their duties towards country and must send their kids to the school (whether boy or girl) for proper education, take care of the health, hygiene and moral development of their kids, teach good habits and etiquettes, and teach them their responsibilities towards country.
  • Teacher: Teachers are the secondary source of giving their country a nice future by making their students as good and successful citizens of country in the future. They should understand their duties towards country and never show difference among their students (rich and poor, genius and average students, etc). They should teach their all students in equal manner in order to give good leaders and bright future to the country.
  • Doctor: A doctor is considered as God for the patients as he/she gives new life to them. Because of some greedy doctors, high technique treatments are not available within the country. They are very costly to which poor or even middle class people cannot afford. Some government doctors do not perform their duties well in the hospital and open their personal clinics at many places to earn more money. They should understand their responsibility of making available all the costly treatments at affordable cost within the country. They should not go abroad after higher study however, work in their own country for better development.
  • Engineer: Engineers are highly responsible for the infrastructure development in the country. They should positively use their knowledge and professional skills in right direction to develop their country. They should not involve in corruption and be loyal to their duties.
  • Politician: The status of the country depends on its politician. A politician (who is not greedy and not involved in corruption) plays various great roles in the development of country whereas a corrupt politician can destroy the country. So, a politician must understand and perform his/her duties towards country.
  • Policemen: Police is allotted at various places in the city, state and national level in order to maintain security, peace and harmony all over the country. They are the hope of people, so they should be loyal towards people as well as country.
  • Businessmen: The duty of a businessman towards his country is to create more employment in the country and not in abroad in order to improve economy as well as reduce poverty in the country. He should not involve in the corruption and smuggling.
  • Sportsperson: Sportsperson should play their games and sports loyally in their own country and should not involve in any type of corruption or match fixing as they are role model to many growing youths of the country.
  • Common Citizen (Aam Adami): Common citizens are highly responsible in various ways to their country. They should understand their loyal duties and chose a good leader to lead their country in right direction. They should make their home and surrounding areas neat and clean so that they can be healthy, happy and free of diseases. They should be disciplined, punctual, and always be on time without getting late even for a minute to their job where they are working in any profession.

Global citizenship is idea of all persons having rights and civic responsibilities that come with being a member of the World, with whole-world philosophy and sensibilities, rather than as a citizen of a particular nation or place. The idea is that one’s identity transcends geography or political borders and that responsibilities or rights are derived from membership in a broader class: "humanity". This does not mean that such a person denounces or waives their nationality or other, more local identities, but such identities are given "second place" to their membership in a global community.[1] Extended, the idea leads to questions about the state of global society in the age of globalization.[2] In general usage, the term may have much the same meaning as "world citizen" or cosmopolitan, but it also has additional, specialized meanings in differing contexts. Various organizations, such as the World Service Authority, have advocated global citizenship.

Usage[edit]

Education[edit]

In education, the term is most often used to describe a worldview or a set of values toward which education is oriented (see, for example, the priorities of the Global Education First Initiative led by the Secretary-General of the United Nations).[3] The term "global society" is sometimes used to indicate a global studies set of learning objectives for students to prepare them for global citizenship (see, for example, the Global Studies Center at the University of Pittsburgh).[4]

Global citizenship education[edit]

Main article: Global Citizenship Education

Within the educational system, the concept of global citizenship education (GCED) is beginning to supersede or overarch movements such as multicultural education, peace education, human rights education, Education for Sustainable Development and international education.[5] Additionally, GCED rapidly incorporates references to the aforementioned movements. The concept of global citizenship has been linked with awards offered for helping humanity.[6] Teachers are being given the responsibility of being social change agents.[7] Audrey Osler, director of the Centre for Citizenship and Human Rights Education, the University of Leeds, affirms that "Education for living together in an interdependent world is not an optional extra, but an essential foundation".[8]

With GCED gaining attention, scholars are investigating the field and developing perspectives. The following are a few of the more common perspectives:

  • Critical and transformative perspective. Citizenship is defined by being a member with rights and responsibilities. Therefore, GCED must encourage active involvement. GCED can be taught from a critical and transformative perspective, whereby students are thinking, feeling, and doing. In this approach, GCED requires students to be politically critical and personally transformative. Teachers provide social issues in a neutral and grade-appropriate way for students to understand, grapple with, and do something about.[9]
  • Worldmindedness. Graham Pike and David Selby view GCED as having two strands. Worldmindedness, the first strand, refers to understanding the world as one unified system and a responsibility to view the interests of individual nations with the overall needs of the planet in mind. The second strand, Child-centeredness, is a pedagogical approach that encourages students to explore and discover on their own and addresses each learner as an individual with inimitable beliefs, experiences, and talents.[10]
  • Holistic Understanding. The Holistic Understanding perspective was founded by Merry Merryfield, focusing on understanding the self in relation to a global community. This perspective follows a curriculum that attends to human values and beliefs, global systems, issues, history, cross-cultural understandings, and the development of analytical and evaluative skills.[7]

Philosophy[edit]

Global citizenship, in some contexts, may refer to a brand of ethics or political philosophy in which it is proposed that the core social, political, economic and environmental realities of the world today should be addressed at all levels—by individuals, civil society organizations, communities and nation states—through a global lens. It refers to a broad, culturally- and environmentally-inclusive worldview that accepts the fundamental interconnectedness of all things. Political, geographic borders become irrelevant and solutions to today's challenges are seen to be beyond the narrow vision of national interests. Proponents of this philosophy often point to Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 B.C.) as an example, given his reported declaration that "I am a citizen of the world (κοσμοπολίτης, cosmopolites)" in response to a question about his place of origin.[11] A Sanskrit term, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, has the meaning of "the world is one family".[12] The earliest reference to this phrase is found in the Hitopadesha, a collection of parables. In the Mahopanishad VI.71-73, ślokas describe how one finds the Brahman (the one supreme, universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe). The statement is not just about peace and harmony among the societies in the world, but also about a truth that somehow the whole world has to live together like a family.[12]

Psychological Studies[edit]

Recently, global pollsters and psychologists have studied individual differences in the sense of global citizenship. Beginning in 2005, the World Values Survey, administered across almost 100 countries, included the statement, “I see myself as a world citizen.” For smaller studies, several multi-item scales have been developed, including Sam McFarland and colleagues’ Identification with All Humanity scale (e.g., “How much do you identify with (that is, feel a part of, feel love toward, have concern for) . . . all humans everywhere?”),[13] Anna Malsch and Alan Omoto’s Psychological Sense of Global Community (e.g., “I feel a sense of connection to people all over the world, even if I don’t know them personally”),[14] Gerhard Reese and colleagues’ Global Social Identity scale (e.g. “I feel strongly connected to the world community as a whole.”),[15] and Stephen Reysen and Katzarska-Miller's global citizenship identification scale (e.g., “I strongly identify with global citizens.”).[16] These measures are strongly related to one another, but they are not fully identical.[17]

Studies of the psychological roots of global citizenship have found that persons high in global citizenship are also high on the personality traits of openness to experience and agreeableness from the Big Five personality traits and high in empathy and caring. Oppositely, the authoritarian personality, the social dominance orientation and psychopathy are all associated with less global human identification. Some of these traits are influenced by heredity as well as by early experiences, which, in turn, likely influence individuals' receptiveness to global human identification.[13]

Research has found that those who are high in global human identification are less prejudiced toward many groups, care more about international human rights, worldwide inequality, global poverty and human suffering. They attend more actively to global concerns, value the lives of all human beings more equally, and give more in time and money to international humanitarian causes. They tend to be more politically liberal on both domestic and international issues.[13] They want their countries to do more to alleviate global suffering.[16]

Following a social identity approach, Reysen and Katzarska-Miller tested a model showing the antecedents and outcomes of global citizenship identification (i.e., degree of psychological connection with global citizens).[16] Individuals’ normative environment (the cultural environment in which one is embedded contains people, artifacts, cultural patterns that promote viewing the self as a global citizen) and global awareness (perceiving oneself as aware, knowledgeable, and connected to others in the world) predict global citizenship identification. Global citizenship identification then predicts six broad categories of prosocial behaviors and values, including: intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act.[18] Subsequent research has examined variables that influence the model such as: participation in a college course with global components,[19] perception of one’s global knowledge,[20] college professors' attitudes toward global citizenship,[21] belief in an intentional worlds view of culture,[22] participation in a fan group that promotes the identity,[23] use of global citizen related words when describing one's values, possible self as a global citizen,[24]religiosity and religious orientation,[25] threat to one’s nation,[26] interdependent self-construal prime,[27] perception of the university environment,[28] and social media usage.[29]

Aspects[edit]

Geography, sovereignty, and citizenship[edit]

At the same time that globalization is reducing the importance of nation-states,[30] the idea of global citizenship may require a redefinition of ties between civic engagement and geography. Face-to-face town hall meetings seem increasingly supplanted by electronic "town halls" not limited by space and time. Absentee ballots opened the way for expatriates to vote while living in another country; the Internet may carry this several steps further. Another interpretation given by several scholars of the changing configurations of citizenship due to globalization is the possibility that citizenship becomes a changed institution; even if situated within territorial boundaries that are national, if the meaning of the national itself has changed, then the meaning of being a citizen of that nation changes.[31]

Tension among local, national, and global forces[edit]

An interesting feature of globalization is that, while the world is being internationalized, it’s also being localized at the same time.[32] The world shrinks as the local community (village, town, city) takes on greater and greater importance. This is reflected in the term glocalization, a portmanteau of the words "global" and "local". Mosco (1999) noted this feature and saw the growing importance of technopoles.[33] If this trend is true, it seems global citizens may be the glue that holds these separate entities together. Put another way, global citizens are people who can travel within these various boundaries and somehow still make sense of the world through a global lens.

Human rights[edit]

The lack of a universally recognized world body can put the initiative upon global citizens themselves to create rights and obligations. Rights and obligations as they arose at the formation of nation-states (e.g. the right to vote and obligation to serve in time of war) are being expanded. Thus, new concepts that accord certain "human rights" which arose in the 20th century are increasingly being universalized across nations and governments. This is the result of many factors, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948, the aftermath of World War II and the Holocaust and growing sentiments towards legitimizing marginalized peoples (e.g., pre-industrialized peoples found in the jungles of Brazil and Borneo). Couple this with growing awareness of our impact on the environment, and there is the rising feeling that citizen rights may extend to include the right to dignity and self-determination. If national citizenship does not foster these new rights, then global citizenship may seem more accessible.

One cannot overestimate the importance of human rights discourse in shaping public opinion. What are the rights and obligations of human beings trapped in conflicts? Or, incarcerated as part of ethnic cleansing? Equally striking, are the pre-industrialized tribes newly discovered by scientists living in the depths of dense jungle? These rights can be equated with the rise of global citizenship as normative associations, indicating a national citizenship model that is more closed and a global citizenship one that is more flexible and inclusive.[34] If true, this places a strain in the relationship between national and global citizenship.

UN General Assembly[edit]

On 10 December 1948, the UN General Assembly Adopted Resolution 217A (III), also known as "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights."[35]

Article 1 states that "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." [36]

Article 2 states that "Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty."[37]

Article 13(2) states that "Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." [38]

As evidence in today's modern world, events such as the Trial of Saddam Hussein have proven what British jurist A. V. Dicey said in 1885, when he popularized the phrase "rule of law" in 1885.[39] Dicey emphasized three aspects of the rule of law :[40]

  1. No one can be punished or made to suffer except for a breach of law proved in an ordinary court.
  2. No one is above the law and everyone is equal before the law regardless of social, economic, or political status.
  3. The rule of law includes the results of judicial decisions determining the rights of private persons.

US Declaration of Independence[edit]

The opening of the United States Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, states as follows:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed;[41]

"Global citizenship in the United States" was a term used by former U.S.PresidentBarack Obama in 2008 in a speech in Berlin.[42]

Support for global government[edit]

In contrast to questioning definitions, a counter-criticism can be found on the World Alliance of YMCA's website. An online article in YMYCA World emphasizes the importance of fostering global citizenship and global justice, and states, "Global citizenship might sound like a vague concept for academics but in fact it’s a very practical way of looking at the world which anyone, if given the opportunity, can relate to."[43] The author acknowledges the positive and negative outlooks towards globalization, and states, "In the context of globalisation, thinking and acting as global citizens is immensely important and can bring real benefits, as the YMCA experience shows."[43]

Social movements[edit]

World citizen[edit]

In general, a world citizen is a person who places global citizenship above any nationalistic or local identities and relationships. An early expression of this value is found in Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412 B.C.; mentioned above), the founding father of the Cynic movement in Ancient Greece. Of Diogenes it is said: "Asked where he came from, he answered: 'I am a citizen of the world (kosmopolitês)'".[44] This was a ground-breaking concept because the broadest basis of social identity in Greece at that time was either the individual city-state or the Greeks (Hellenes) as a group. The Tamil poet Kaniyan Poongundran wrote in Purananuru, "To us all towns are one, all men our kin." In later years, political philosopher Thomas Paine would declare, "my country is the world, and my religion is to do good."[45] Today, the increase in worldwide globalization has led to the formation of a "world citizen" social movement under a proposed world government.[46] In a non-political definition, it has been suggested that a world citizen may provide value to society by using knowledge acquired across cultural contexts.[47]

Albert Einstein described himself as a world citizen and supported the idea throughout his life,[48] famously saying "Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind."[49] World citizenship has been promoted by distinguished people including Garry Davis, who lived for 60 years as a citizen of no nation, only the world. Davis founded the World Service Authority in Washington, DC, which sells World Passports, a fantasy passport to world citizens.[50] In 1956 Hugh J. Schonfield founded the Commonwealth of World Citizens, later known by its Esperanto name "Mondcivitana Respubliko", which also issued a world passport; it declined after the 1980s.

The Bahá'í faith promotes the concept through its founder's proclamation (in the late 19th century) that "The Earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."[51] As a term defined by the Bahá'í International Community in a concept paper shared at the 1st session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, New York, U.S.A. on 14–25 June 1993.[52] "World citizenship begins with an acceptance of the oneness of the human family and the interconnectedness of the nations of 'the earth, our home.' While it encourages a sane and legitimate patriotism, it also insists upon a wider loyalty, a love of humanity as a whole. It does not, however, imply abandonment of legitimate loyalties, the suppression of cultural diversity, the abolition of national autonomy, nor the imposition of uniformity. Its hallmark is 'unity in diversity.' World citizenship encompasses the principles of social and economic justice, both within and between nations; non-adversarial decision making at all levels of society; equality of the sexes; racial, ethnic, national and religious harmony; and the willingness to sacrifice for the common good. Other facets of world citizenship—including the promotion of human honour and dignity, understanding, amity, co-operation, trustworthiness, compassion and the desire to serve—can be deduced from those already mentioned."[52]

Mundialization[edit]

Philosophically, mundialization (French, mondialisation) is seen as a response to globalization’s "dehumanisation through [despatialised] planetarisation" (Teilhard de Chardin quoted in Capdepuy 2011).[53] An early use of mondialisation was to refer to the act of a city or a local authority declaring itself a "world citizen" city, by voting a charter stating its awareness of global problems and its sense of shared responsibility. The concept was promoted by the self-declared World Citizen Garry Davis in 1949, as a logical extension of the idea of individuals declaring themselves world citizens, and promoted by Robert Sarrazac, a former leader of the French Resistance who created the Human Front of World Citizens in 1945. The first city to be officially mundialised was the small French city of Cahors (only 20,000 in 2006), the capital city of the Département of Lot in central France, on 20 July 1949. Hundreds of cities mundialised themselves over a few years, most of them in France, and then it spread internationally, including to many German cities and to Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In less than a year, 10 General Councils (the elected councils of the French "Départements"), and hundreds of cities in France covering 3.4 million inhabitants voted mundialisation charters. One of the goals was to elect one delegate per million inhabitants to a People's World Constitutional Convention given the already then historical failure of the United Nations in creating a global institution able to negotiate a final world peace. To date, more than 1000 cities and towns have declared themselves World cities, including Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Philadelphia, Toronto, Hiroshima, Tokyo, Nivelles, and Königswinter.[54]

As a social movement, mundialization expresses the solidarity of populations of the globe and aims to establish institutions and supranationallaws of a federative structure common to them, while respecting the diversity of cultures and peoples. The movement advocates for a new political organization governing all humanity, involving the transfer of certain parts of national sovereignty to a Federal World Authority, Federal World Government and Federal World Court. Basing its authority on the will of the people, and developing new systems to draw the highest and best wisdom of all humanity into the task of governing our world, the collaborative governing system would be capable of solving the problems which call into question the future of man, such as hunger, water, war, peace-keeping, pollution and energy. The mundialization movement includes the declaration of specified territory - a city, town, or state, for example - as world territory, with responsibilities and rights on a world scale. Currently the nation-state system and the United Nations offer no way for the people of the world to vote for world officials or participate in governing our world. International treaties or agreements lack the force of law. Mundialization seeks to address this lack by presenting a way to build, one city at a time, such a system of true World Law based upon the sovereignty of the whole.

Earth Anthem[edit]

Author Shashi Tharoor feels that an Earth Anthem sung by people across the world can inspire planetary consciousness and global citizenship among people.[55]

Criticisms[edit]

Not all interpretations of global citizenship are positive. For example, Parekh advocates what he calls globally oriented citizenship, and states, "If global citizenship means being a citizen of the world, it is neither practicable nor desirable."[56] He argues that global citizenship, defined as an actual membership of a type of worldwide government system, is impractical and dislocated from one's immediate community.[56] He also notes that such a world state would inevitably be "remote, bureaucratic, oppressive, and culturally bland."[56] Parekh presents his alternative option with the statement: "Since the conditions of life of our fellow human beings in distant parts of the world should be a matter of deep moral and political concern to us, our citizenship has an inescapable global dimension, and we should aim to become what I might call a globally oriented citizen."[56] Parekh's concept of globally oriented citizenship consists of identifying with and strengthening ties towards one's political regional community (whether in its current state or an improved, revised form), while recognizing and acting upon obligations towards others in the rest of the world.[56]

Michael Byers, a professor in Political Science at the University of British Columbia, questions the assumption that there is one definition of global citizenship, and unpacks aspects of potential definitions. In the introduction to his public lecture, the UBC Internalization website states, "'Global citizenship' remains undefined. What, if anything, does it really mean? Is global citizenship just the latest buzzword?"[57] Byers notes the existence of stateless persons, whom he remarks ought to be the primary candidates for global citizenship, yet continue to live without access to basic freedoms and citizenship rights.[57] Byers does not oppose the concept of global citizenship, however he criticizes potential implications of the term depending on one's definition of it, such as ones that provide support for the "ruthlessly capitalist economic system that now dominates the planet."[57] Byers states that global citizenship is a "powerful term"[57] because "people that invoke it do so to provoke and justify action,"[57] and encourages the attendees of his lecture to re-appropriate it in order for its meaning to have a positive purpose, based on idealistic values.[57]

Neither is criticism of global citizenship anything new. Gouverneur Morris, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention (United States), criticized "citizens of the world" while he was on the floor of the convention; August 9, 1787. "As to those philosophical gentlemen, those Citizens of the World as they call themselves, He owned he did not wish to see any of them in our public Councils. He would not trust them. The men who can shake off their attachments to their own Country can never love any other. These attachments are the wholesome prejudices which uphold all Governments, Admit a Frenchman into your Senate, and he will study to increase the commerce of France: an Englishman, and he will feel an equal biass in favor of that of England."[58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  3. ^"Priority #3: Foster Global Citizenship." Global Education First Initiative, Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  4. ^"Global Studies Center". University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  5. ^Australian Government (2008). Global Perspectives: A framework for global education in Australian schools. Carlton South Victoria, Australia: Curriculum Corporation. ISBN 978 1 74200 075 6
  6. ^Jim Luce (1 June 2010). "Euro-American Women' s Council Global Forum and Awards Set For Athens in July". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2010-06-16.  
  7. ^ abMundy, K., et al. (eds). Comparative and International Education. New York: Economic Policy Institute and Teachers College. ISBN 978-0807748817
  8. ^Osler, Audrey and Hugh Starkey (2010). Teachers and Human Rights Education. London:Trentham Books. ISBN 978-1858563848
  9. ^O’Sullivan, M. (2008). "You can’t criticize what you don’t understand: Teachers as social change agents in neo liberal times." Pp. 113-126 in O’Sullivan, Michael & K. Pashby (eds.) Citizenship in the era of globalization: Canadian perspectives. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
  10. ^Pike, G. & D. Selby (2000). In the Global Classroom 2. Toronto: Pippin.
  11. ^Diogenes Laertius, "The Lives of Eminent Philosophers", Book VI, Chapter 2, line 63.
  12. ^ abMalhotra, Rajiv. (2014-01-14). Indra's Net. Harper Collins, India. ISBN 9789351362487. 
  13. ^ abcMcFarland, S. Webb; Brown, D. (2012). "All humanity is my ingroup: A measure and studies of Identification with All Humanity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 103: 830–853. doi:10.1037/a0028724. PMID 22708625. 
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  16. ^ abcReysen, S.; Katzarska-Miller, I. (2013). "A model of global citizenship: Antecedents and outcomes". International Journal of Psychology. 48: 858–870. doi:10.1080/00207594.2012.701749. 
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  22. ^Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva (2013). "Intentional worlds and global citizenship". Journal of Global Citizenship and Equity Education. 3 (1): 34–52. 
  23. ^Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2014). ""One of us": Engagement with fandoms and global citizenship identification". Psychology of Popular Media Culture. 3 (1): 49–64. doi:10.1037/ppm0000008. 
  24. ^Blake, Marion; Reysen, Stephen (2014). "The influence of possible selves on global citizenship identification". International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning. 6 (3): 63–78. doi:10.18546/ijdegl.06.3.05. 
  25. ^Katzarska-Miller, Iva; Barnsley, Carole; Reysen, Stephen (2014). "Global citizenship identification and religiosity". Archive for the Psychology of Religion. 36 (3): 344–367. doi:10.1163/15736121-12341291. 
  26. ^Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva; Salter, Phia; Hirko, Caroline (2014). "Blurring group boundaries: The impact of subgroup threats on global citizenship". Cultural Encounters, Conflicts, and Resolutions. 1 (2). 
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  43. ^ abAris & June 2007
  44. ^Diogenes Laertius, "The Lives of Eminent Philosophers", Chapter VI, line 63.
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  50. ^My Country Is the World By Garry Davis
  51. ^Bahá'u'lláh
World Citizen flag by Garry Davis

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